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Environmental Impact Assesment Review, , Rio de Janeiro, fevereiro de American Economic Review , 64 2 , pg.
American Economic Review 67 1 : , Feb. Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Perfomance. Cambridge, University Press, Editora Atlas, Ecological Economics, vol 8, pg.
Resource and Energy Economics. American Economic Review, vol.
Journal of Development Economics, vol. American Economic Review, 64 2 , pg. Review of Studies Economics, vol. On the other hand, Kang has interviewed eight young people — five women and three men — who were born in Korea and aged between 18 and 25 years old.
Her dissertation addresses the difficulties of social integration of those young immigrants with their parents and the relationship with Brazilian friends of the same age. She noted that Korean parents exercised considerable control over their children and prevented the involvement with Brazilians, making marriage between Koreans and Brazilians harder, avoided and considered unacceptable.
The crucial dilemma of full integration was commented on by the women interviewed: "From childhood, I thought I might even have a Brazilian as my boyfriend, but marriage should be with a Korean 13 ".
And, she concludes: "I feel better marrying a Korean. First, because our culture is the same, and second, he will understand our habits 14" Kang, Parents were conservative and against marrying non-Korean or at least non-Asians. In this respect, the old hatred of the Koreans against the Japanese over the long occupation has not been reproduced, at least apparently, in Brazil, although there are some controversies: "There is a long-standing rivalry with the Japanese, which comes from listening to parents and grandparents because of the war.
The Koreans were greatly humiliated by the Japanese. In an oriental party, there is at least one fight a night15 " Yuri, Os coreanos foram muito humilhados pelos japoneses. Em balada oriental, rola pelo menos uma briga por noite".
Among them, we highlight the Brazilian Association of Koreans16, a civil entity representative of the Korean community in Brazil; the Brazil-Korea Chamber of Commerce and Industry 17 ; the Brazilian Association of Korean Sportsmen; as well as several Protestant churches, a Catholic church and a Buddhist temple.
Currently, the Korean leadership in Brazil is committed to broadening the integration of immigrants with Brazilian society, through greater cultural openness and close contact with local communities. Another example is the Polilogos School 19 , also in the neighborhood of Bom Retiro, built with resources from the community and the Korean government, open to Brazilians and Koreans, offering basic education in both languages. There are also many charitable activities undertaken by both the Brazilian Association of Koreans and the religious entities of the community; actions that represent ways to form partnerships with the native Brazilians and with the country that welcomed the immigrants who arrived from Korea.
In , an almanac full of illustrations, facts and curiosities about Korea was launched by Kim Yoo Na to commemorate the 45th anniversary of Korean immigration in Brazil.
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In one section, titled "Profiles of Korean-Brazilians," ten people eight men and two women are considered to be examples of successful immigrants in Brazil, even without committing themselves to the clothing industry. They belong to a variety of professions: magician, judge, architect, airplane pilot, gospel singer, publicist, franchise owner, photographer, reporter and president of a large company. Also in , with the objective of researching the second generation of Koreans in Brazil, the Korean Studies Group interviewed Brazilian high school students born between and , 15 to 18 years old born in Brazil of Korean parents father and mother.
The results of these questionnaires are available on the Internet Some data from this research caught our attention. The overwhelming majority of these young people speak Korean, eat Korean food and listen to Korean music every day.
About the circulation of Korean culture in Brazil in its more traditional aspect, it can be affirmed that the repertoire brought by immigration until the last decade remained unknown to Brazilian society, being confined the sphere of sociability concentrated within the migrant communities. As far as language is concerned, this invisibility is revealed in a more forceful way, since Hangul until very recently was configured in a language of little appeal and demand with the research centers and universities in our country, when compared to the mandarin or to Japanese.
However, it is possible to point out that the cultural exchanges between Korea and Brazil are in current growth, revealing a flow of interest and investments as a two ways street between the two countries.
The University of Foreign Studies of Pusan23 has also offered a degree program in Portuguese since , and a master's program was created in In , Korean Language I and II became part of the grade of this course as optional electives that attracted many students of Eastern languages at that university. Since then, the number of students interested in the Korean language and culture has grown over the years, breaking into other specific initiatives scattered in the universities of the country.
In the words of director Sei Young Lee, "the inauguration of the Korean Cultural Center in Brazil is an important historical milestone for development in the relationship between Brazil and Korea. Through the exchange and sharing of cultural heritage, the Korean Cultural Center will make the most of the maturing and cultural enrichment between Brazil and Korea25". Besides being a multipurpose space, which can receive different types of exposition besides dance classes and lectures, the center also has a room where Korean classes and other activities are held Izidoro, The neighborhood - a kind of Mecca for Brazilian consumers of Korean culture - concentrates cafes, shops, restaurants and markets that sell food and various traditional and pop Korean utilities.
The first of these initiatives is the Nam Ho Lee Institute29, which since offers regular Korean language classes, as well as promoting lunches, dinners and other events related to Korean, traditional and modern culture.
The institute, which is coordinated by Joana Lee, has been quite successful in attracting interested audiences to speak Hangul, the official language of Korea. The classes, which are being offered to students in the first year of high school, on an ongoing basis up to the third year aim to prepare the students with the highest performance for an exchange opportunity in Korean universities.
In the light of the foregoing, although the cultural presence of Korea in our country has been subject to little visibility in academic investigations especially in communication , in local media representations and discourses, recent changes compel us to look more closely at recent media counter-flows of South Korea in the multipolar world, from the movements of Korean Wave, which had been embraced as a vehicle of visibility and pride within the Korean community and together with a group of fans and consumers interested in Asian culture in Brazil.
This is what we will see more closely in the next section. Basically, the Korean Wave consists of the popularity reached by South Korean pop and its related products - television dramas k-dramas , pop music k-pop and pop idols k-idols - in neighboring Asian countries.
The Korean Wave had its heyday in with the large-scale export of the Winter Sonata, a television drama produced by the Korean Broadcasting System KBS followed by the rapid popularization of its pop music in neighboring countries and the global market. Unlike Japan, Korea was the object rather than the subject of the Far East imperialist process, which has generated resentment that has continued ever since Jonghoe, Indeed, it was through the solid Japanese pop fan circuit, in its most varied production audiovisual and musical , that the conditions of possibilities of Korean pop became the object of consumption and local visibility began to be created, still in the mids.
The development of Web 2. According to YouTube data from a survey provided by KOCIS , in , South Korean pop music videos obtained more than six million views in Brazil, making it clear that the consumption of k-pop in the country is significant and precedes this period, being also directly related to the advent of web 2.
In fact, not only the geographical and cultural proximity between Japan and South Korea has favored Brazilian consumers to sympathize with Korean pop culture, inserting it into their everyday consumption, as the development of new production tools and sharing of was decisive in this process.
The groups responsible for translating and subtitling Japanese audiovisual content — called fansubs — were extremely important during the process of introducing Korean Wave products into daily lives of Japanese pop fans in Brazil. Due to the great demand for Asian audiovisual in general and the lack of local media, some translation groups have included Korean films, programs and dramas such as Ohayo Dramas Fansubs32 and Dramafans33 blogs that mainly translate films and dramas from various Asian backgrounds Professional websites for online distribution of series and films such as DramaFever 35 and Viki 36 , specializing in Korean films and dramas, have emerged to meet the expectations and the growing and specific interest of fans around the Korean audiovisual As for k-pop music, the introduction came via anime songs, Japanese animation soundtracks that consisted of the first means by which the idols of k-pop music would become known in Brazilian lands.
One of the most significant examples in this sense is that of the South Korean singer BoA, who sang one of the closing songs of the anime InuYasha in , a Japanese production that was relatively successful in Brazil. Due to the presence of Korean artists in anime songs, as a marketing strategy used by South Korean entertainment companies, some Brazilian fans of j- pop music began to insert k-pop music into their daily musical consumption. Is it simply another example of newcomers to the list of donor countries or is it more than that?
How is the link between humanitarian diplo- macy and aid maintained in the discourse of Turkish foreign policy? Foreign aid simply refers to the fow of materials and resources in cash or in kind from a developed state to developing or less-developed nations. Te second re- fers to aid given to multilateral development institutions and developing coun- tries.
In terms of reporting, there are certain specifc requirements set by ODA eligibility, such as the exclusion of direct military aid and enforcement aspects of peacekeeping forces.
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Tis relationship, which does not necessar- ily constitute a negative correlation by defnition, has been well documented and the response to the relationship varies. However, the necessity for aid has never been directly disputed or rejected.
Turkish aid can be contextualized as the overlapping of the geographical ex- pansion of Turkish international assistance and strengthening of aid organi- zations with the rise of Turkey in the regional and global context.
Rather than disputing or rejecting the relationship, Turkey has claimed to relocate the con- nection between politics and aid activities in a way that allows the relationship to become part of the discussion in forming a responsive new international order.
One way to display this is to focus on the history of development assis- tance politics in Turkey, which will be discussed in the following section. Table 1: However, setting aside the discussion of such a role, political instability, economic crises and the lack of institutional structure prevented Turkey from refecting this ambition in its international aid activities.
It remained disorga- nized and weak both in the amount and geographical scope. Te systematic and structural change in international aid politics began with the rule of the AK Party in November Te governmental transition came with specifc references to the role of Turkey in global politics, paving the way for developing a comprehensive cooperation strategy.
Relocating Turkey in Global Politics: In terms of foreign policy, Turkey has become an active stabilizing actor in both regional and global politics, reaching out to new geographies ranging from Asia to Latin America, in addition to increasing activities in Europe and the Middle East. Te transformation process has been defned as the transition from the Old Turkey to the New Turkey.
In the realm of development cooperation, the sharp increase in the activities of TIKA is a concrete sign of that transformation. Te total number of projects rose to ,47 between and from the projects imple- mented between and , a fve-fold increase in the average number of projected implemented each year. Figure 2 displays this tendency. Table 2: Figure 3 provides the most comprehensive and compar- ative data on humanitarian assistance on a global scale.
Figure 4: Te number of participants reached 10, with the in- volvement of NGOs, 36 heads of state and government, 96 ministers and 66 presidents of international organizations.
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All Syrians have access to free health services and their major needs, includ- ing education, are being met in the TPCs through the coordination of AFAD. Approximately 62, refugees have attended educational courses, including primary education and the total number given ambulatory care service has reached 2.
In that sense, Turkey has become an indispensable part- ner and leading country on a global scale in providing contributions to fght against humanitarian crises, poverty and global injustice. Te frst announcement of these campaigns was put on the website of the Prime Ministry as an ofcial call to raise awareness of sufering in diferent parts of the world. Certain themes have been continuously referred to in virtually all speeches delivered on these platforms, as well as in domes- tic politics, including need for justice, links between world order and poverty UN and leadership failure , need for a new world order, and empathy.
Furthermore, maintaining regional and global stability has been directly asso- ciated with development cooperation targeting to reduce poverty and preserve sustainable global development in Turkish foreign policy. On the other hand, the policy is a con- sequence of such a tendency in Turkish foreign policy-makers. Tese organi- zations, which previously had limited activities by either focusing on a specifc region or on domestic aid campaigns, have made diferent parts of the world, from Central Asia to sub-Saharan Africa or the Middle East and Europe, part of their daily discussions and activities.
Turkish foreign policy takes human dignity as a point of reference and remains determined to use all its means and ca- pabilities in this direction.
In this regard and in light of the historical transformation taking place in our immediate neighborhood, the deliberations in the Conference has confrmed the need for Turkey to continue to implement humanitarian diplo- macy in an efective and decisive way in a broad geography stretching from Syria to Afghanistan and Myanmar to Somalia in the forthcoming period.
Second, it is defned as a framework developed by Turkey to move beyond diplomatic models and humanitarian visions formed by the Westphalian nation-state model. Turkey has won the hearts and minds of people through this systematic and dedicated vision of humanitarian aid and ofcial assistance, as it has been treated as the only way to respond to the sufering of others and move towards a just global order.
Endnotes 1. September 17, April 1, January 26, Pinar Akdemir. A new pulse in Africa.Nigel was celebrated in a small and personal family ceremony at the Dundee crematorium on April 16, but a more formal memorial service will be organised for the beginning of the Autumn, to recall his personal qualities, as a father, teacher, mentor, historian, for his generosity, for his good humour, wit and happy anecdotes, for his commitment to his values.
I had the greatest respect for Nigel and his work, and enjoyed his company greatly. En calidad de directora del mismo, me dirijo a Ud. Important groups in the South Korean pop scene such as Super Junior in and BTS in , and also performed in Brazil, thus demonstrating that the country has been entering the map of South Korean entertainment, especially driven by the articulation and mediation of Brazilian fans Seixlack, , Essinger, Ahmed Ali. The largest number of immigrants, 4,, arrived in Brazil in and The University of Foreign Studies of Pusan23 has also offered a degree program in Portuguese since , and a master's program was created in We will never forget his enthusiasm and passion for his subject and the way he taught it — he was a truly inspirational teacher and an absolutely wonderful man.
May [Currently Displayed] All papers reproduced by permission. In the realm of development cooperation, the sharp increase in the activities of TIKA is a concrete sign of that transformation.
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