Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) is a widely used 1. the original Borg scale or category scale (6 to 20 Both the and scales are used in clinical. Borg's Perceived Exertion And Pain Scales Download full-text PDF And one of the most common one s is the Borg scale [6]. However. The Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) is a way of measuring physical activity The seemingly odd range of is to follow the general heart rate of a Look at the rating scale below while you are engaging in an activity; it ranges.

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During the work we want you to rate your perception of exertion, i.e. how heavy and strenuous the exercise feels to you and how tired you are. The perception of . The study of human performance and perceived exertion during physical activity has been Download citation file: . Thus, a Borg RPE scale of 6 corresponds to a heart rate of 60 beats/min in a in the workplace, where it is used to assess the exertion used in manual handling and physically active work. Downloaded from on July 13, This work is BORG G. Psychophysical scaling with applications in physical work and the perception of exertion. of effort and exertion, one of the most popular methods is the rating of perceived exertion. This scale .. Gamberale F. Perception of effort in manual materials.

This study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. Group allocation was concealed by the author in a spreadsheet.

Borg scale is valid for ratings of perceived exertion for individuals with Parkinson's disease.

Training programs and feasibility The training parameters were identical for both training programs and followed the American Stroke Association position on exercise prescription after stroke.

Each training session comprised three series of 10 repetitions for each movement, with a 2-minute rest between series. Each training session lasted 60 minutes. For both training groups, muscle groups that play a key role in the functional performance of the upper limb were targeted 23 , 24 ie, wrist extensors, elbow and shoulder flexors, and grip muscles.

The intensity of training was standardized using the BRPE 6—20 scale. Shortness of breath was not a variable to consider in the rating, as done so for aerobic exercise. Strength training program For the ST, participants trained the shoulder flexors, elbow flexors, and wrist extensors by lifting free weights with the targeted muscle groups. For each muscle group, the maximum load that a participant could lift 10 times 10RM was used to estimate the 1RM using the formula of Brzycki.

Functional training program The FT aimed at performing various tasks involving the affected upper limb such as writing, pouring water, screwing, lifting boxes and putting them on a shelf, and throwing and catching a Velcro ball.

Progression was made when the participant rating was below the BRPE target intensity level for each specific week of training. The trainer then increased the difficulty of the task to keep it challenging, but feasible for the participant by varying, among other things, the speed of movement or size of an object.

Rating of perceived exertion

For each participant, the trainer recorded training progression in a log book. Clinical assessment Before and after FT and ST, participants underwent a clinical assessment of their affected upper limb by a blinded evaluator. These tools have good validity and reliability with people with a stroke.

Statistical analyses Feasibility outcome measures were assessed by summarizing the number of participants having completed the FT and ST, as well as the number of adverse events reported.

Comparison of these ratings between both groups was done by a Wilcoxon rank-sum test. To explore the impact of FT and ST on clinical measures, Mann—Whitney U and Chi-squared tests were first used to ensure that both groups were comparable on sociodemographic and clinical outcomes. Afterward within each group, clinical changes were evaluated by a Wilcoxon signed-rank test, whereas a Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare these clinical changes between the two groups.

Significance level was set at 0.

Prior to exercise testing, participants were familiarized with the cycle ergometer, standard 12 lead electrocardiogram ECG and Borg category ratio RPE scale which were to be utilized during the testing protocol. Although heart rate was monitored continuously, the heart rate that was used for comparison to RPE was taken during the last 15 seconds of each stage. The GXT preformed was a modification of previously described protocols used in the PD population 8, Participants began the exercise test with a five-minute supine rest prior to the warm-up phase of the GXT.

The warm-up phase consisted of three minutes cycling at 20W resistance at a self-selected pedaling cadence. Participants were encouraged to keep this selfselected cadence throughout the GXT. After warm-up, each stage lasted two minutes in duration with 20W increases up until stage four minute eight when 40W increases were made until volitional exhaustion, or until the American College of Sport Medicine test termination criteria was met After test completion, three minutes of recovery cycling at 20W was completed by each participant.

VO 2 was recorded throughout the protocol via indirect calorimetry with averages being taken at 30 second intervals using a calibrated metabolic cart Medgraphics Breeze Suite 6. Previous research has identified a strong positive correlation between heart rate and VO 2 20, Because these two measures of physiologic effort are strongly related it is not surprising that the correlation between both heart rate and VO 2 to RPE are typically similar 3, 20, 21, 33, Because of this similarity we elected to assess only the relationship between heart rate and RPE.

A two-step process was implemented to address the primary aim of whether RPE scores were associated with heart rate and exercise workload. First, univariate coefficients were calculated for each participant by individually correlating their RPE scores from each completed exercise test stage with the corresponding heart rates and exercise workloads using Pearson correlation analyses.

The coefficients from all participants were then averaged and reported as mean correlation coefficients for the relationships between RPE and heart rate and RPE and exercise workload. Statistical significance from the correlation analyses could not be determined because each subject had multiple scores in the data set, which violates the assumption of independent scores.

Rating of perceived exertion

Therefore, mixed-effects models were added as a second step to the analysis because these models allow for multiple observations and interdependence of the observations within participants. Percentages were used in attempts to normalize the data since all participants did not progress to the same stage during their GXT.

No studies to date on typical and prac- pected to change. In referring back to principles of tical strength testing and training procedures have properly psychophysics, however, it has been noted that for submax- evaluated perceived effort in light of this long history of psy- imal constant loads of muscle work, where changes in per- chophysical scaling theory.

The most appropriate type of rat- ceived exertion are measured as a function of time e. The 3 specific sensations, which has been the focus of most of the strength aims were i to add to the theoretical evidence-base training and perceived exertion validation studies Gearhart et within the context of psychophysical scaling across incre- al. An chines; ii to assess changes in RPEs as a function of exception to this is Pincivero et al. In the older participants it was decided to cussed in this present study.

Rationale and general methods to all study parts ; American College of Sports Medicine and the There were 3 experiments in this study.

All data were collected in real gymnasium settings. Therefore, the concentric phase of the move- There was a progressive rationale to the order of the 3 ex- ment for the prime muscle group was performed in 1. Experiment 1 was designed to focus on evaluating 2. These exercises consisted of measuring responses to incremental loads of muscular work.

This 0. In experiment 3, a similar evaluation to experiment 2 of 1. However, in keeping with AHA and ACSM rec- ommendations for these populations older people and some Experiment 1 with a clinical condition , the exercises were performed over a greater number of repetitions Furthermore, to reflect This experiment had 2 components to it.

None As with all of the key studies previously noted Gearhart et of the participants had experience in using RPE scales during al. All participants had been correctly and Foster , Pincivero et al.

The trend-lines could thus be used , and Gearhart et al. These weights would equate weight experiment 1 or each repetition experiments 2 and 3. During all testing sessions the Borg scale was kept in full view of the participant at all times. For each participant dur- Participants and testing sessions ing each of the tests the exercise machines were adjusted ap- Forty participants consisting of 20 males aged 19— propriately to his or her stature leg length and arm length.

Limb movements were paced using a met- tween 3 and 5 h per week, were recruited either by poster or ronome for the younger individuals and a stopwatch with the invitation from within a university psychology department. Participants carried of 50 years. Testing of the latter group was for purposes the next weight increment for the triceps exercise, and so of making comparisons to previous studies and the ACSM forth. This was repeated until participants reached the weight and AHA recommendations.

In keeping with Fifty members, who were over the age of 50 years guidelines of the National Strength and Conditioning Associ- 25 men and 25 women , were selected at random from this ation www.

The first resistance level and health screening by an Accredited Clinical Exercise involved performing the exercise with no weight and was rep- Physiologist British Association of Sport and Exercise Sci- resented in the data as 0 kg.

In keeping with Lynch et al. This convenience 5. CR10 perceived exertion ratings were others with previous cardiovascular disease or musculoskele- measured after the second repetition at each weight incre- tal conditions.

Those participants with any medical history or ment.

It was felt that 2 repetitions gave adequate time 8 to condition risk, who were previously referred to exercise for 10 s for participants to perceive and judge the necessary health or rehabilitation, were cleared for participation by a muscular sensations required to give a rating on the CR10 medical doctor.

None of these participants were in an acute scale.

No motivational feedback was given. The intermediate or rehabilitation phase of treatment all regularly exercising relative weights were denoted for CR10 ratings of 1. Thus 26 of the members as a function of time over a given number of repetitions , at completed all the trials, which resulted in 2 groups of 13 par- pre-set weights determined in experiment 1. Of the 40 partic- ticipants. The final CR10 group, aged The group mean As in experiment 2, male and ; Pincivero et al.

A gender female data were pooled. Testing sessions of older people This group were instructed to complete 12 repetitions in The first testing session involved appropriate instruction keeping with AHA and ACSM guidelines for young healthy and or correction for standardized movement technique and individuals , or as many as possible at the same relative in- posture with the leg press and latissimus dorsi lat-pull tensity during the same single joint exercises of experiment 1 weights machines Force Fitness Ltd, Bolton, UK.

As per triceps elbow extension and leg—knee extension. The loads Lynch et al. As in experiment 1, the same process of providing Participants completed 15 repetitions and gave a rating of ex- rest periods and alternating between muscle groups was ap- ertion after every odd numbered repetition.

At each session plied to mitigate the effects of muscle fatigue. Simi- larly for the leg press, the respective increments for males Experiment 3 and females were 7.

Furthermore, measured in the final session, where a 15RM was achieved, the growth exponents for both triceps and leg extension exer- were the ones used for analysis. A significant interaction effect between fected by the following parameters: increases in the amount exercise and gender was also apparent F[1.

Figure 2 illustrates the group mean growth curves from the 1RM theoretical estimate graphs and equations exponents derived from the curves in Fig. For the sake of simplic- maximal effort for a given weight and its corresponding ity, functions were determined with the constant a from CR10 rating.

The c values for selected levels were created through graphic interpolation of each participant Experiment 2 with a precision of 0. A Figure 3 summarizes the group mean change in CR10 rat- higher c value indicates a broader dynamic range Borg and ings for young adult males and females pooled data with Karlsson , where in this case it is an ability to perform the exception of the first weight increment W1.

Data were excluded for individuals extension exercise illustrated in Fig. The slope of the regres- reached or if a rating below 1.

Each of these 3 weights corresponded to the amount et al. The corre- with a rating of 10; iii conversion of these absolute values sponding equations are all described in Fig.

To compensate for this to in- clude all participants, the reported regression equations for Results W5 in Fig. Experiment 1 Figure 1 summarizes the results from experiment 1 in the Experiment 3 young males and females, where there is a positively acceler- Male and female data in this experiment are pooled as sub- ating growth in the CR10 score for each increment in weight. The results summarized in Figs.

For the males exertion as the exercise progressed up to the 15th repetition. Mean CR10 scale ratings of perceived exertion performing 2 repetitions at incremental amounts of weight. A Male leg extension; B female leg extension; C male triceps extension; D female triceps extension. Relative group mean growth curves of CR10 ratings for tri- nificant. Discussion This study evaluated perceived exertion responses during resistive exercise training both in terms of the intensity weight lifted and duration number of repetitions in younger and older individuals.

In keeping with principles of psychophysics summarized by Stevens , as illustrated in Figs. The growth exponent values in this present study ranged from 1. However, this is the first time such an evaluation has covered different muscle groups using a system of weights machines. Weights were set at after 2-repetitions.

The gender bias towards women reporting that a weight used for arm exercise triceps feels lighter Figs. These studies also showed that such gender differences were much less apparent in the functioning of the legs, which corresponds with the growth exponents being more similar between men and women in the leg extension responses Figs.

This also corre- sponds with Lynch et al.Open image in new window Fig. There are, reported on this phenomenon.

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Disclosure The authors report no conflicts of interest in this work. Due to positive results from previous exercise research, there is an increased need to translate these findings from a laboratory setting to the PD community at large.

This work has been advanced by studies describing comparable levels of peripheral muscle fatigue via evoked maximal contractions following exhaustive exercise in normoxia and hypoxia despite a substantial reduction in exercise time Amann et al.

Also, based on the premise that type of training does not seem to be a key element in promoting posttraining clinical gains after a stroke, 3 , 9 , 21 , 22 the secondary objective was to explore the effectiveness of FT and ST in improving affected upper limb recovery, when the intensity of training is comparable.

In keeping with principles of psychophysics summarized by Stevens , as illustrated in Figs. The slope of the regres- reached or if a rating below 1. For both arm and Conclusions leg exercises performed at the same relative intensity in young Fig.