BOOK REVIEWS. The Great Ages of World Architecture, New. York: George Braziller, , $ each. Robert l. Scranton, Greek Architecture, 12B pp. . The Great Ages Of World Architecture book. Read 7 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. Ebook Download Roman Architecture Great Ages of World Architecture Book by Frank Edward Brown Middle Ages Architecture -. Lords and Ladies Middle Ages .
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It explains how architecture has changed from the time of the Egyptians and draws parallels between various styles from across the world at the same era. Hritika rated it really liked it Jul 06, No trivia or quizzes yet.
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Jul 14, Vaibhav Tyagi added it. A sickle for harvesting crops and thatching materials. Bronze is made when tin is added to copper and brass is copper with zinc. Copper came into use before 5, BC and bronze around 3, BC, although the times vary by region.
Copper and bronze were used for the same types of tools as stone such as axes and chisels, but the new, less brittle, more durable material cut better. Bronze was cast into desired shapes and if damaged could be recast. A new tool developed in the copper age is the saw. Other uses of copper and bronze were to "harden" the cutting edge of tools such as the Egyptians using copper and bronze points for working soft stone including quarrying blocks and making rock-cut architecture.
The Great Ages Of World Architecture
During the Bronze Age the corbelled arch came into use such as for beehive tombs. The wheel came into use but was not common until much later.
Heavy loads were moved on boats, sledges a primitive sled or on rollers. The Egyptians began building stone temples with the post and lintel construction method and the Greeks and Romans followed this style.
Iron Age construction[ edit ] You can help by adding to it. Iron is not much harder than bronze but by adding carbon iron becomes steel which was being produced after about BC. Steel can be hardened and tempered producing a sharp, durable cutting edge.
A new woodworking tool allowed by the use of steel is the hand-plane. Ancient Mesopotamia[ edit ] The earliest large-scale buildings for which evidence survives have been found in ancient Mesopotamia.
The smaller dwellings only survive in traces of foundations, but the later civilizations built very sizeable structures in the forms of palaces, temples and ziggurats and took particular care to build them out of materials that last, which has ensured that very considerable parts have remained intact.
Major technical achievement is evidenced by the construction of great cities such as Uruk and Ur. The Ziggurat of Ur is an outstanding building of the period, despite major reconstruction work.
Another fine example is the ziggurat at Chogha Zanbil in modern Iran.
Cities created demands for new technologies such as drains for animal and human sewage and paved streets. Archaeological evidence has shown the existence of pitched-brick vault  s such as at Tell al-Rimah in what is now Iraq.
Materials[ edit ] The chief building material was the mud-brick , formed in wooden moulds similar to those used to make adobe bricks. Bricks varied widely in size and format from small bricks that could be lifted in one hand to ones as big as large paving slabs. Rectangular and square bricks were both common.
They were laid in virtually every bonding pattern imaginable and used with considerable sophistication. Drawings survive on clay tablets from later periods showing that buildings were set out on brick modules.
Life in general was governed by complex ritual and this extended to rituals for setting-out buildings and moulding the first bricks. Contrary to popular belief the arch was not invented by the Romans, but was used in these civilizations.
Detail of the Ishtar Gate BC showing the exceptionally fine glazed brickwork of the later period. Glazed bricks have been found from the 13th century B. The pitched-brick vault is a type found in Mesopotamia circa BC. A mosque courtyard is used for performing ablutions, and a 'patio' for rest or gathering. Hypostyle hall[ edit ] A Hypostyle , i.
This type of building originated from the Roman -style basilica with an adjacent courtyard surrounded by colonnades , like Trajan's Forum in Rome. The Roman type of building has developed out of the Greek agora. In Islamic architecture, the hypostyle hall is the main feature of the hypostyle mosque. One of the earliest hypostyle mosques is the Tarikhaneh Mosque in Iran, dating back to the 8th century.
Umayyad diaphragm arches and barrel vaults[ edit ] Qusair 'Amra In their vaulting structures, Umayyad period buildings show a mixture of ancient Roman and Persian architectural traditions. Diaphragm arches with lintelled ceilings made of wood or stone beams, or, alternatively, with barrel vaults, were known in the Levant since the classical and Nabatean period.
They were mainly used to cover houses and cisterns. The architectural form of covering diaphragm arches with barrel vaults, however, was likely newly introduced from Iranian architecture , as similar vaulting was not known in Bilad al-Sham before the arrival of the Umayyads. The earliest known example for barrel vaults resting on diaphragm arches from Umayyad architecture is known from Qasr Harane in Syria.
During the early period, the diaphragm arches are built from coarsely cut limestone slabs, without using supporting falsework , which were connected by gypsum mortar.
Later-period vaults were erected using pre-formed lateral ribs modelled from gypsum, which served as a temporal formwork to guide and center the vault.
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These ribs, which were left in the structure afterwards, do not carry any load.The techniques used to move massive blocks used in pyramids and temples have been subject to extensive debate. There are no surviving Egyptian manuals so there has been considerable speculation on how stones were lifted to great heights and obelisks erected.
Following a long tradition of viewing architecture through art historical lenses, Scruton focuses on architectural experience as primarily visual and static.
Even in their advocacy, Parsons and Carlson caution against the suggestion that function solely determines form, as that would neglect other features of artifacts not possibly highlighted by their functions.
Bronze is made when tin is added to copper and brass is copper with zinc. Write a customer review.
Building structures mostly used a simple beam and column system without vaults or arches, which based strict limits on the spans that could be achieved.