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Selinker-Interlanguage - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, () p. PDF | In this article, we address the important issue of 'how we know what learners know' based on evidence Larry Selinker at New York University . proposed by Selinker () is that interlanguage – at least partially. Larry Selinker ). The Interlanguage (IL) hypothesis claims that second- language Selinker () proposed that the existence of a latent psycho-.
He has proposed and developed a few important concepts in SLA, such as interlanguage, fossilization, language transfer and learning and communication strategies, which have been studied by many other scholars dedicated to SLA research.
Larry Selinker was educated in Brandeis University in Waltham, Massachusetts from to , during which period he stayed in Hebrew University in Jerusalem, Israel for one year, studying Hebrew Language and Literature. Selinker is a very productive linguist.
He published a large quantity of works: Second Language Acquisition: an introductory course in , Fossilization in SLA in , Fossilization: moving the concept into empirical longitudinal study in , Explanations and scientific method in second language research in , Error resistance: towards an empirical pedagogy in , to name only a few.
As a successful linguist, he won many rewards and scholarships, the Fulbright professorship grants for instance. To be more precise, it is an emerging linguistic system that has been developed by a learner of a second language or L2 who has not become fully proficient yet but is approximating the target language: preserving some features of their first language or L1 , or overgeneralizing target language rules in speaking or writing the target language and creating innovations.
There are three major characteristics of interlanguage: systematicness, variability and fossilization. Firstly, interlanguage as an independent system is composed of a series of rules, which are different from those in the target language grammatical system. Although interlanguage varies tremendously in its expression forms, it develops in a relatively consistent and systematic way at every stage.
It is based on this rule system that second language learners use the target language to communicate. Secondly, interlanguage is a dynamic system. Thirdly, fossilization is a process occurring from time to time in which incorrect linguistic features become a permanent part of the way a person speaks or writes a language.
This is the reason why most second language learners fail to achieve native-like proficiency. Fossilization is the most important characteristics of interlanguage.
Selinker also proposed five cognitive processes of interlanguage formation: language transfer, overgeneralization of target language rules, transfer of training, strategies of L2 learning and strategies of L2 communication. Interlanguage is one of the earliest theory models to use cognitive views to explain SLA phenomena.
It regards SLA as a psychological process and provides a theory frame to explain it. This theory forms a strong theoretical basis for later experimental studies of SLA. Besides, interlanguage is a representation of language knowledge from the aspect of cognitive psychology.
This concept facilitates further studies of cognitive theory on the role of this representation in Second Language Acquisition.
Interlanguage is an important concept in Error Analysis, a type of linguistic analysis that focuses on the errors learners make. In error analysis, we make a comparison between the errors a learner makes in producing the target language namely in the interlanguage and the target language form itself. So interlanguage is very important in providing us with errors that learners make.
Fossilization, as the most important characteristics of interlanguage, has also been studied by many scholars over the years. The five cognitive processes of interlanguage formation mentioned above are considered by Selinker the major causes of fossilization, with language transfer being the decisive factor. There are also biological causes of fossilization. Language acquisition will become impossible or incomplete after this period usually puberty.
He also proposed another concept of infrasystem. He holds that while L1 acquisition calls for an infrasystem, L2 acquisition also requires its corresponding infrasystem.
If a learner has not developed the infrasystem for acquiring a second language or if this infrasystem is underdeveloped, then he or she has to turn to the already-developed infrasystem for mother tongue to acquire the second language. However, the infrasystem for mother tongue is not appropriate for acquiring the second language, after the close of the critical period for primary language acquisition, the L2 learner stands a greater chance of fossilizing far from target-language norms.
Language transfer also known as L1 interference refers to speakers or writers applying knowledge from their native language to a second language. There are mainly two kinds of transfer: positive transfer and negative transfer.
Positive transfer occurs when some characteristics of native language are similar to or the same with target language; negative transfer occurs when the dissimilarities between native language and target language are mistakenly taken to be similarities.
It is believed by many linguists that in the process of second language acquisition, linguistic forms and rules that are similar to those of native language are easier to learn that those that are different. Learning strategies and communication strategies are both postulated as basic processes leading to the formation of interlanguge.
Learning strategies are involved in all types of learning and teaching like science, mathematics, history, languages and other subjects, both in formal classroom and informal learning environments.
Language learning strategies are the often-conscious steps or behaviors used by language learners to enhance the acquisition, storage, retention, recall, and use of new information. Different learners may employ different learning strategies. For instance, some learners who are very shy and introvert learn a second language through grammar drills and sentence analysis.
They do the rehearsal as much as they can in isolation. On the other hand, sociable and extrovert learners avoid grammar drills but seek out social conversation in English.
They are satisfied that they can get the general meaning without knowing every word. There are three main types of strategies used by L2 learners: metacognitive strategies, cognitive strategies and social strategies.
A communication strategy is a deliberate attempt to express meaning when faced with difficulty in the second language. Larry Selinker - Wikipedia ; Larry Selinker is professor emeritus of linguistics at the University of Michigan, and former director of the university's English Language Institute.
Interlanguage by Selinker 1972
In , Selinker introduced the concept of interlanguage, which built upon Main article Interlanguage - Sociolinguistics at St. American linguist Larry Selinker to refer to the lin International Review of Applied Larry Selinker troz, International Review of Applied Linguistics, Written at Champaign, and Editor of Second Language Research , but this time, creatively in In Gass, S.
Transfer or Innateness in Interlanguage?
Interlanguage: Fossilization ; Interlanguage. Selinker to refer to the SL adult learner's grammatical system.They are satisfied that they can get the general meaning without knowing every word.
In Jerusalem, Selinker focused on advanced reading for second-language learners.
Different learners may employ different learning strategies. This call initiated a flood of research studies and the establishment of the field of second language acquisition SLA. Selinker, L.. In Gass, S. Communication Strategies. Richards ed.