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PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. Both tai chi chuan and qigong are related and for centuries have been practiced together—each Essential. Today tai chi is practiced throughout the world, not by soldiers, but by people wanting a gentle physical workout combined with a mentally. PDF | Tai Chi and Qigong are forms of movement derived from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), gaining more and more popularity around.

Read Five eBooks Free! Become a member of Free-Ebooks. Email I want Free eBooks Already a member? Login here Membership requires a valid email address. Sign up here. Reader Reviews. Add a comment: You need to login to post a comment. You may also like Apr Tai Chi exercise programs can slow down the decline in health-related quality of life ADL among elderly persons.

After 12 months, the Tai Chi and cognition-action groups showed a lesser decline in ADL than the control group. Walking ability and continence were maintained better in the intervention groups than in the control group. The total Neuropsychiatric Inventory score worsened significantly in the control group, while it was unchanged or improved in the intervention groups. Psychological Well-Being Jin [ 54 ] reported that Tai Chi practitioners had increased noradrenaline excretion in urine and decreased salivary cortisol concentration.

The increase in urine noradrenaline indicated that the sympathetic nervous system is moderately activated during the Tai Chi practice.

The decrease in salivary cortisol concentration denoted that Tai Chi is a low-intensity exercise and has similar effects of meditation. It is also reported that a week Tai Chi program could reduce mood disturbance and improve general mood in women [ 56 ].

For subjects with cardiovascular risk factors, Taylor-Piliae and colleagues [ 57 ] have reported that a minute Tai Chi class 3 times weekly for 12 weeks might improve mood state, reduction in anxiety, anger-tension, and perceived stress.

Wang and colleagues [ 58 ] reviewed the effect of Tai Chi on psychological profile in 40 studies including subjects. Twenty-one of 33 randomized and nonrandomized trials reported that regular practice of Tai Chi improved psychological well-being including reduction of stress, anxiety, and depression and enhanced mood. Seven observational studies also demonstrated beneficial effects on psychological health. Jimenez and colleagues [ 59 ] reviewed 35 Tai Chi intervention articles in various populations and reported that Tai Chi might provide health benefits to psychological function.

In those studies, 9 out of 11 studies confirmed significant improvements in mood and depressive symptoms, 7 out of 8 studies showed reduction in anger and tension, and 6 out of 10 studies displayed improvements in anxiety reduction.

Tai Chi can be applied in patients with depression. In a recent study, Yeung and colleagues [ 60 ] randomly assigned 39 patients with major depressive disorders to a week Tai Chi intervention or a wait-list control group.

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Compared with the control group, the results showed trends toward improvement in positive treatment-response rate and remission rate in the Tai Chi group. Application of Tai Chi in Medicine An optimal exercise program for adults should address the health-related physical fitness components of cardiorespiratory aerobic fitness, muscular strength and endurance, flexibility, body composition, and neuromotor fitness [ 61 ].

Previous research suggests that Tai Chi may improve health-related fitness and psychosocial function. Additionally, Tai Chi includes the warm-up and cool-down, stretching exercises, and gradual progression of volume and intensity, and it seems to be helpful to reduce muscular injury and complications. The discussion below will focus on the clinical application in patients with neurological diseases, rheumatological diseases, orthopedic diseases, cardiopumonary diseases and cancers.

Tai Chi for Neurological Disease 5. Stroke It is estimated that 15 million people experience a stroke worldwide each year. In the United States, about , people experience a new or a recurrent stroke ischemic or hemorrhagic each year [ 62 ]. Stroke results in a significant decrease in quality of life, which is determined not only by the neurological deficits but also by impairment of cognitive function.

In a recent meta-analysis, Stoller and colleagues [ 63 ] reported that stroke patients benefited from exercise by improving peak oxygen uptake and walking distance. Stroke patients usually have impaired balance and motor function; thus, Tai Chi exercise may have potential benefits in stroke rehabilitation. Hart and colleagues [ 64 ] assigned 18 community-dwelling stroke patients to a Tai Chi group or a control group.

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The study group practiced Tai Chi one hour twice weekly for 12 weeks, while the control group received conventional physical therapy. After training, the Tai Chi group showed improvement in social and general functioning, whereas the control group showed improvement in balance and speed of walking. The results implied that physical therapy should be served as a main treatment program for stroke patients, but Tai Chi can be used as an alternative exercise program.

Balance and motor skills in everyday life may benefit when stroke survivors do Tai Chi exercises. Au-Yeung and colleagues [ 65 ] randomly assigned stroke patients to a Tai Chi group or a control group practicing general exercises.

The Tai Chi group practiced 12 short forms of Tai Chi for 12 weeks. After training, the Tai Chi group showed greater excursion in the center of gravity COG amplitude in leaning forward, backward, and toward the affected and nonaffected sides, as well as faster reaction time in moving the COG toward the nonaffected side. The result indicated that Tai Chi training improved standing balance in patients with stroke. Tai Chi also shows benefits to the psychological function.

Wang and colleagues [ 66 ] randomly assigned 34 patients with stroke to Tai Chi exercise or conventional rehabilitation in group sessions once a week for 12 weeks. In a recent study, Taylor-Piliae and Coull [ 67 ] recruited 28 stroke patients to participate in a community-based Yang Tai Chi training program.

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There were no falls or other adverse events in the training period. Tai Chi appears to be safe and can be considered as a community-based exercise program for stroke patients. Normal sensorimotor agility and dynamic control are required to maintain balance during motor and cognitive tasks. Gait changes include difficulty in initiating steps, shuffling, and freezing of gait and they are common in patients with PD.

Balance difficulties are also prominent during turning and backward walking, and thus patients with PD have high risk of falls [ 68 ]. Tai Chi can improve balance, kinesthetic sense, and strength, and hence it may be prescribed as a sensorimotor agility program for patients with PD. Li and colleagues [ 69 ] designed a Tai Chi program for 17 community-dwelling patients with mild-to-moderate idiopathic PD.

At the end of this intervention, the program was well received by all participants with respect to participant satisfaction, enjoyment, and intentions to continue. Furthermore, a significant improvement was observed in 50 ft speed walk, timed up-and-go, and functional reach. The results of this pilot study suggested that even a 5-day Tai Chi program was effective for improving physical function in patients with PD.

In another study [ 70 ], 33 patients with PD were randomly assigned to a Tai Chi group or a control group. The Tai Chi group participated in 20 training sessions within 10—13 weeks.

In a recent study, Li and colleagues [ 71 ] randomly assigned patients with PD to one of three groups: Tai Chi, resistance training, or stretching. All patients participated in minute exercise sessions twice weekly for 24 weeks. After training, the Tai Chi group performed better than the other two groups in maximum excursion and in directional control. The Tai Chi group also performed better in strength, functional reach, timed up-and-go, motor scores, and number of falls than the stretching group.

Additionally, the Tai Chi group outperformed the resistance-training group in stride length and functional reach.

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This study revealed that Tai Chi could reduce balance impairments in patients with PD, with improved functional capacity and reduced falls. Tai Chi appears to be a safe and effective exercise for patients with mild-to-moderate PD.

However, the outcome is disappointing in severely injured patients. Exercise therapy for patients with TBI may improve the motor function and independence. Shapira and colleagues [ 72 ] reported the application of long-term Tai Chi training in 3 patients with severe TBI. After 2 to 4 years of training, all patients can walk without assistance, rarely fall, and feel more secure while walking.

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One patient can lead independent daily activities and even return to car driving. The results showed that Tai Chi was associated with significant improvement on all Visual Analogue Mood Scales scores with decreases in sadness, confusion, anger, tension, and fear and with increases in energy and happiness. Intervention participants attended a Tai Chi Qigong program for one hour per week, while control participants engaged in nonexercise-based social and leisure activities.

After the intervention, mood and self-esteem were improved in the Tai Chi group when compared with controls. There were no significant differences in physical functioning between groups. Multiple Sclerosis Husted and colleagues [ 75 ] reported that 19 patients with multiple sclerosis participated in an 8-week Tai Chi program. The results may be attributed to the effect of neuromuscular facilitation during Tai Chi practice. Studies have shown that patients with rheumatological diseases can benefit from Tai Chi exercise.

Although Tai Chi is performed in a semisquat posture, joint pain can be prevented because most motions of Tai Chi are performed in a closed kinematic chain and in very slow speed [ 20 ]. However, patients with arthropathy should perform Tai Chi in high-squat posture to prevent excessive stress on lower extremities. In a recent review, Tai Chi may modulate complex factors and improve health outcomes in patients with rheumatologic conditions.

Rheumatoid Arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis RA is a chronic, inflammatory, and systemic disease which affects the musculoskeletal system. In addition, Tai Chi has significant benefits to lower extremity range of motion for patients with RA.

Recently, two studies reported the benefits of Tai Chi for patients with RA. The Tai Chi group had greater improvement in the disability index, the vitality subscale of the SF, and the depression index. Similar trends to improvement for disease activity, functional capacity and health-related quality of life were also observed. In another study [ 80 ], 15 patients with RA were instructed on Tai Chi exercise twice weekly for 12 weeks.

The result showed that the Tai Chi group improved lower-limb muscle function at the end of the training and at 12 weeks of follow up. Patients also experienced improved physical condition, confidence in moving, balance, and less pain during exercise and in daily life.

Others experienced stress reduction, increased body awareness, and confidence in moving. These studies indicated that Tai Chi was a feasible exercise modality for patients with RA. Ankylosing Spondylitis Ankylosing spondylitis AS is a chronic inflammatory disease of the axial skeleton with variable involvement of peripheral joints and nonarticular structures.

In a recent study [ 81 ], Lee and colleagues assigned 40 patients with AS to Tai Chi or control group. After training, the Tai Chi group showed significant improvement in disease activity and flexibility compared with the control group, and no adverse effects associated with the practice of Tai Chi were reported by the participants. Fibromyalgia Fibromyalgia syndrome is a chronic condition characterized by widespread pain, multiple tender points, nonrestorative sleep, fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, complex somatic symptoms, and poor quality of life [ 82 ].

Exercise showed some benefits in the treatment of patients with fibromyalgia. An important study of Tai Chi on fibromyalgia was reported by Wang and colleagues [ 83 ]. In this trial, 66 patients with fibromyalgia were randomly assigned to a Tai Chi group or a group that attended wellness education and stretching program. Each session lasted for 60 minutes twice weekly for 12 weeks. The SF physical component scores and mental component scores were significantly improved compared with the control group.

This study proved that patients with fibromyalgia benefited from Tai Chi training, with no adverse effects. Jones and colleagues [ 84 ] conducted a randomized controlled trial and assigned patients with fibromyalgia to Tai Chi or education group.

The Tai Chi participants practiced modified 8-form Yang-style Tai Chi 90 minutes twice weekly for over 12 weeks. After training, the Tai Chi group demonstrated significant improvements in FIQ scores, pain severity, pain interference, sleep, and self-efficacy for pain control compared with the education group.

Functional mobility variables including timed up-and-go, static balance, and dynamic balance were also improved in the Tai Chi group. Tai Chi appears to be a safe and acceptable exercise modality for patients with fibromyalgia.

In a recent study, Romero-Zurita and colleagues [ 85 ] reported the effects of Tai Chi training in women with fibromyalgia. Thirty-two women with fibromyalgia attended Tai Chi intervention 3 sessions weekly for 28 weeks. After training, patients improved in pain threshold, total number of tender points, and algometer score.

Additionally, the Tai Chi group improved in the total score and six subscales of FIQ: stiffness, pain, fatigue, morning tiredness, anxiety, and depression. Finally, patients also showed improvement in six subscales in SF bodily pain, vitality, physical functioning, physical role, general health, and mental health. Tai Chi for Orthopedic Disease 7. The first randomized trial of Tai Chi and osteoarthritis was conducted by Hartman and colleagues [ 86 ].

In this study, 33 older patients with lower extremity OA were assigned to Tai Chi or control group. Tai Chi training included two 1-hour Tai Chi classes per week for 12 weeks.

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After training, Tai Chi participants experienced significant improvements in self-efficacy for arthritis symptoms, total arthritis self-efficacy, level of tension, and satisfaction with general health status. Song and colleagues [ 87 ] randomly assigned 72 patients with OA to a Tai Chi group or a control group.

After training, the Tai Chi group perceived significantly less joint pain and stiffness and reported fewer perceived difficulties in physical functioning, while the control group showed no change or even deterioration in physical functioning.

The Tai Chi group also displayed significant improvement in balance and abdominal muscle strength. Patients were assigned to a Tai Chi or an attention control group.

Subjects in the attention control group attended six weeks of health lectures, followed by 12 weeks of no activity. After six weeks of training, the Tai Chi group showed significant improvements in overall knee pain, maximum knee pain, and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index WOMAC subscales of physical function and stiffness compared with the baseline.

The Tai Chi group reported lower overall pain and better WOMAC physical function than the attention control group, but all improvements disappeared after detraining. The result implies that a short-term Tai Chi program is beneficial for patients with OA, but long-term practice is needed to maintain the therapeutic effect. Fransen and colleagues [ 90 ] randomly assigned older persons with chronic hip or knee OA to hydrotherapy classes, Tai Chi classes, or a wait-list control group.

After 12 weeks of training, both the hydrotherapy group and the Tai Chi group demonstrated improvements for pain, and physical function scores and achieved improvements in the Item Short From Health Survey SF physical component summary score. This study revealed that Tai Chi and hydrotherapy can provide similar benefits to patients with chronic hip or knee OA. In a randomized controlled trial conducted by Wang and colleagues [ 91 ], 40 patients with OA were assigned to Tai Chi group or attention control group.

The result showed that Tai Chi reduces pain and improves physical function, self-efficacy, depression and health-related quality of life for patients with knee OA. In a recent randomized controlled study [ 92 ], 58 community-dwelling elderly patients with knee OA and cognitive impairment were assigned to a Tai Chi week program or a control group.

After training, the Tai Chi group showed significant improvement in WOMAC pain, physical function, and stiffness score than the control group. The result showed that practicing Tai Chi was effective in reducing pain and stiffness in patients with knee OA and cognitive impairment. Tai Chi is also beneficial to gait kinematics for the elderly with knee OA. Shen and colleagues [ 93 ] applied Tai Chi on 40 patients with knee OA. Osteoporosis Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disorder, and it is estimated that 44 million individuals in the United States over the age of 50 years have osteoporosis or low bone mass [ 94 ].

Exercise is an effective therapy to prevent or delay the development of osteoporosis. Qin and colleagues [ 95 ] reported that Tai Chi participants had significantly higher bone mineral density BMD than the controls in the lumbar spine, the proximal femur, and the ultradistal tibia.

The follow up measurements showed generalized bone loss in both groups, but the quantitative computed tomography revealed significantly reduced rate of bone loss in trabecular BMD of the ultradistal tibia and of the cortical BMD of the distal tibial diaphysis. In a subsequent study, Chan and colleagues [ 96 ] randomly assigned healthy postmenopausal women to Tai Chi or sedentary control group.

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Kasliwal, M. Kowalski, S. Kulkarni, T. Kupfer, R. Laher, F.It is also a great socializing exercise, where groups of people meet in a park or gym to move in synchronization for their own peace of mind. Wu, W. Additionally, the spatial, temporal, and neuromuscular activation patterns of TCG were different with normal gait. Each session lasted for 60 minutes twice weekly for 12 weeks. This model is used to constrain the synthesized radioactive nickel mass 0.

Additionally, the Tai Chi group improved in the total score and six subscales of FIQ: stiffness, pain, fatigue, morning tiredness, anxiety, and depression.